It is okay if Taliban kill our soldiers? A comment on the slaughter of 15 FC personnel in Waziristan


Pashtuns remain a convenient canon-fodder in Pakistan army's Jihad Enterprise.

Related post: A month since Taliban executed 15 Pakistani soldiers, yet no outrage. Now watch the executions; perhaps…

Editor’s note: In the following article published in Daily Times, Farhat Taj highlights a case of selective morality and hypocrisy recently demonstrated by Pakistan army and its right-wing as well as “liberal” affiliates in Pakistani media by remaining silent on the massacre of at least 15 soldiers kidnapped by the Taliban. According to details, Taliban militants attacked a Frontier Constabulary (FC) fort at Mulazai, Tank on December 22, and took 15 FC men hostage after killing two soldiers. Reportedly, the Taliban had shifted the hostages to North Waziristan where their dead bodies were found three days ago. However, compared to Pakistan army and pro-army media, urban chatterers and politicians’ outrage on the killing of 24 soldiers in a NATO attack in November, the news of the cold blooded kidnapping and subsequent slaying of 15 soldiers was much suppressed in both Urdu and English press and the reaction by army and pro-army political class and liberal activists was almost absent. As Taj notes, it appears that what matters is who killed the soldiers. If the killer is the US, they will condemn with all they have. If the killer is the Taliban, they will forgive and forget. Many such as Imran Khan, Munawar Hasan, General Hamid Gul and Judge Iftikhar Chaudhry will even blame the US for the acts of terror committed and publicly owned by the Taliban.

We invite our readers to the following recent comment left by an FC serviceman on an ET article:

I am performing duty in the same frontier constabulary of which these 15 personnel embraced shahadat [martyrdom]. I appreciate this effort on the part of the author … we are very selective while condemning some acts and castigating their perpetrators. No one in media, nor our so called empathetic leaders expressed anything to sympathise with the bereaved families of these martyrs; let alone rebuking those who, without any compunction, claim responsibility for this barbaric act. And the way those dead bodies were mutilated pronounce the death of any scruples whatever existing on the part of these TTP people. What Martin Luther King remarked during his struggle for civil rights for Blacks in 1960s that ‘in the end it is not the words of enemies but the silence of friends that he would remember’, stands valid in the wake of this gory tale of killing of sons of the soil. This silence on the part of media gurus, political pundits, self styled leaders, and ever vibrant ‘civil society’ speaks volumes of our ‘agenda-pursuing’ lives. we speak only when we are confident that it pays off in popularity, and political mileage..otherwise we profess that ‘Silence is Golden.’

Ironically, the Taliban sent this gift while Pakistan army (Deep State) is using all types of political, diplomatic and strategic pressure to provide legitimacy to its strategic assets, i.e, Taliban, e.g., by opening their diplomatic offices in Qatar and Saudi Arabia. This then validates LUBP’s principled stance that any measures to provide legitimacy to the Taliban and their affiliates will be counter-productive as well as criminal unless the Taliban explicitly agree to abide by international laws and the UN conventions on human rights. (End note)

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Discrimination against FC soldiers
by Farhat Taj

In November, 24 Pakistani army soldiers were killed by the Afghanistan-based US and NATO forces in a border attack at Salala checkpost in FATA. The Pakistani media, banned militant organisations, religious political parties and urban middle class as well as liberal Pakistanis continue to condemn the attack on a daily basis. More than a month since the incident the public demonstrations against it continue to take place in the country. Pakistan has sought an apology from the US for the attack. The incident has worsened Pak-US relations, which were already at one of the lowest points in history.

Compare this grandiose response with the response given to the killing of almost the same number of Frontier Corps (FC) paramilitary soldiers killed by the militants in Tank and Bannu a month after the US killing of the Pakistani army soldiers. The difference could not be starker. The government, the military, the media, militant organisations, right-wing political parties, middle class and liberal Pakistanis stand united in silence over this incident as if it never happened or is not worth paying attention to. Neither the government has asked for an apology from the Taliban nor has it expressed the resolve to bring the killers of the FC soldiers to justice. If the past record of the government is anything to go by, one must forget about justice for the affected FC families. In May 2011, over 70 FC recruits were most brutally killed in twin suicide attacks in Charsadda district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. By 2010, over 700 FC soldiers have been killed in the war on terror. It seems justice for the FC soldiers killed or injured by the Taliban or for their families have never been even an issue. Are the FC soldiers less worthy than the soldiers of the Pakistan Army? Are the sufferings of the families of the FC soldiers any less than the sufferings of the families of the army soldiers? What reasons explain the totally different Pakistani response to the two equally brutal killings?

One explanation can be that the killing of the soldiers, whether FC or the Pakistan Army, really does not matter for those Pakistanis who continue to protest the border incident at Salala checkpost. What matters is who killed the soldiers. If the killer is the US, they will condemn with all they have. If the killer is the Taliban, they will forgive and forget. Many will even blame the US for the acts of terror committed and publicly owned by the Taliban. This is the logical outcome of Pakistan’s role as a hostile ally in the war on terror whereby it fights with the US against the militant groups but at the same time nurtures the militants as proxies against the US. It is obvious that this dubious role is neither capable of pleasing the US nor all of the proxies as some among them might feel cheated and violently react, especially those who are no more wanted by the military establishment that has tried to eliminate them in the US drone attacks or in mysterious targeted killings by Pakistani spies. The bottom line is that publicly anti-Americanism has to be kept going to support the Pakistani Generals in dealing with the US no matter how many Pakistani soldiers or innocent Pakistanis have been killed by the disgruntled proxy elements or by ‘design’ by their state handlers to show to the world that Pakistan is really paying the price for participation in the war on terror. This is because the US and Pakistan are not on the same page in terms of strategic objectives in Afghanistan.

The other reason that explains the silence over the brutal killings of the FC soldiers is their Pashtun identity. Let me say at the outset that many soldiers of the Pakistan Army are Pashtuns who have been giving their lives in the line of their professional duty along with their colleagues from other ethnicities. There has been an ethnic profiling of the Pashtun soldiers and officers of the Pakistan Army in a malicious manner whereby their sympathies have been associated with the Taliban while absolving the non-Pashtun soldiers and officers of any pro-Taliban views, especially the Punjabis in the army. They were portrayed as the only soldiers and officers in the army who have refused to perform their professional responsibilities or have hindered the army high command from taking action against the Taliban due to their Taliban sympathies. Well known Pakistani journalists have been promoting this misleading as well as degrading view about the Pashtuns in the Pakistan Army. As far as I know, the ISPR never came forward to reject this propaganda against the Pashtun soldiers and officers. This leaves one wondering whether the army was endorsing the propaganda against the professional loyalties of its own soldiers and officers from a specific ethnic group. I will come back to this issue on some other occasion. Now I will only focus on the FC soldiers, whose rank and file and non-officer cadre, unlike the Pakistan Army, are exclusively drawn from the Pashtun tribes in FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its officer cadre is exclusively drawn from the Pakistan Army.

The FC is split into two independent forces: FC Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FC Balochistan. Both FCs are individually led by senior level military officers from the Pakistan Army. The force is under a strict military discipline and its immediate command remains in the hands of the commissioned army officers appointed on deputation from the Pakistan Army. In theory, the FC is meant to be assisting the regular armed forces of Pakistan on need basis. In practice, however, the FC remains part and parcel of the powerful military-intelligence complex of Pakistan that has remained beyond the control of any civilian government of the country. On the one hand the FC is used to brutally suppress any opposition to the military establishment of Pakistan, no matter how genuine the opposition may be, such as the use of FC in suppression of the ongoing nationalist resistance in Balochistan. On the other hand, the FC soldiers are mercilessly exposed to the worst kinds of brutalities from the battle-hardened militants in pursuit of the strategic objectives in Afghanistan, such as the war on terror, while at the same time they are subjected to a malicious propaganda linking their sympathies with the Taliban rather than the Pakistani state.

he Frontier Corps (FC) is the subject of different controversies in the ongoing security crises in Pakistan. In Balochistan, the FC has long been accused of executing the ‘kill and dump’ policy of Baloch nationalists and political activists pursued by the Pakistan Army and its intelligence agencies. Within Balochistan, which remains the exclusive domain of the Pakistani military, the FC soldiers are hated as they are seen as an outside force terrorising the Baloch struggling for their rights.

In the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), another area of Pakistan that remains the absolute domain of Pakistan’s army-intelligence complex, the FC soldiers have been the subject of a totally different controversy: their alleged ‘loyalty’ to the Taliban due to ethnic bonds, against the call of their professional as well as citizenship responsibilities to the Pakistani state in the war on terror. The hostile role of the Pakistani army and intelligence agencies in the war on terror whereby they ostensibly fight with the US and NATO, but covertly nurture and strengthen the Taliban to defeat the allied forces in Afghanistan, is well known to the world. In this regard the FC soldiers have been abused in three manners. One, they have been made to facilitate cross-border infiltrations of al Qaeda-led Taliban from FATA into Afghanistan for attacks on the US, NATO and Afghan forces. Two, they have been left defenceless to be tortured to death in the most brutal manner by the ‘strategic assets’, the Taliban, to show to the world that Pakistan is really paying the price of the war on terror. Three, when Pakistan was confronted with evidence by the allied forces that FC soldiers have been giving ‘direct fire cover’ to the Taliban to enter Afghanistan, the military resorted, through its voices in the media, to the lame excuse of the ‘sympathy factor’ of the FC soldiers with the Taliban as a means to sustain its plausible deniability of its ties with the Taliban.

Many Pakistani journalists have been spreading misleading as well malicious propaganda that the FC soldiers have been siding with the Taliban on supposedly shared ethnic grounds. Many foreign authors, in violation of professional standards in their work, peddled the same line without verifying the facts on the ground. Moreover, these writers, while attributing the FC soldiers’ loyalties to the Taliban on ethnic basis, ignored the multitude of the Punjabi Taliban in FATA. Above all, the writers have never been able to produce concrete evidence of the soldiers’ ethnic loyalties to the Taliban.

The FC soldiers’ ethnic loyalty factor is baseless when seen from the way the FC is structured. The FC is under a strict military discipline and its immediate command remains in the hands of commissioned army officers appointed on deputation from the Pakistan Army. Various FC units are named after the administrative units in FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, such as Khyber Rifles (Khyber Agency), Mohmand Scouts (Mohmand Agency), Dir Scouts (district Dir), Chitral Scouts (district Chitral), etc. Loyalty of an individual in the Pakhtun tribal society — which is a patchwork of tribes, sub-tribes, clans and sub-clans — goes as far as his/her tribe, sub-tribe and even clan or sub-clan. But the FC soldiers hardly operate in the area of their own tribe, sub-tribe, clan or sub-clan. Dir Scouts, for example, do not necessarily draw its soldiers from the tribes, sub-tribes, clans or sub-clans based in district Dir. The force is headquartered in Dir but draws its rank and file from various Pakhtun tribes across Pakistan. This contradicts the claim of ethnic tribal loyalty of the FC soldiers with the Taliban, even if we ignore the strict military command and control over the FC soldiers for a moment.

The FC remains an effective tool of execution of oppressive or otherwise state policies since the establishment of this force in British times. The FC soldiers never hesitate to impose with or without violent means the state policies on Pakhtun or non-Pakhtun alike. Also, the FC’s role has actually been praised by the UN advisor to District Dir Development Project against poppy cultivation in the area. No FC soldier can dare to assist any non-state actor without clear directions by their commanding officers. Thus, any help provided by the FC soldiers to the Taliban could not have been without direct orders from the Pakistan Army officers commanding the soldiers. There might have been isolated cases of insubordination, which might also happen in the Pakistan Army or for that matter in any uniformed force around the world.

All over FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are graves of FC soldiers who died for the sake of the state fighting against the Taliban. While the Pakistan Army has a relatively better package for families of the officers and soldiers killed in the line of duty, the families of the FC soldiers are in many cases left to lick their wounds. Sometime back I wrote a piece in this newspaper about the plight of the internally displaced family of an FC recruit in Orakzai brutally killed by the Taliban. In response to the piece, the FC authorities provided some financial help to the family. Some days ago a private Pakistani TV channel aired the story of an injured FC soldier, who being unable to work due to the injuries he suffered in clashes with the Taliban, has made his teenage daughter a rickshaw driver to earn for the family’s survival. The TV report informed that despite media coverage, no one has come forward from all over Pakistan, including of course the FC authorities, to help this poor family that is under immense mental and financial pressure caused in the line of duty to the state, not loyalty to the Taliban. Some philanthropists in Pakistan should come forward to help the family, including getting the minor girl back to school that she had to leave to take up the unusual job of a rickshaw driver after her father was injured.

As I write these lines, an extremely sad news is coming that the Taliban have tortured to death 15 FC soldiers they had kidnapped sometime back. There is no uproar in the Pakistani media or political circles about these deaths. But there has never been any moral or political unease over FC deaths in Pakistan. The FC soldiers will continue to be abused as long as the Generals control Pakistan. They will be tortured to death. They will be subjected to malicious propaganda to sustain the state’s plausible deniability. They will be used to terrorise the Baloch. This is a norm in Pakistan. The authors writing on FC soldiers are expected to use their analytical skills to see beyond the facade of death and torture surrounding the FC soldiers and be critical of arguments that depict the FC soldiers as anything more than a means to execute the state’s policies. The FC soldiers are also victims of state terrorism.


14 responses to “It is okay if Taliban kill our soldiers? A comment on the slaughter of 15 FC personnel in Waziristan”

  1. In the wake of the cross-border Nato attack in November that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers in Salala, the whole country was up in arms against the aggression of the allied forces. From the political parties to lawyers associations, from banned militant outfits to student organisations, from the head of the armed forces to the aunties in drawing room; everyone thought it fitting to lambast the US — especially since most people cannot really distinguish between the US and Nato — for attacking Pakistan’s sovereignty, its land and its people.

    A few weeks later, 15 Frontier Constabulary personnel who were captured in Tank on December 23 were taken to Waziristan by the Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and killed after some time. Unlike the deaths in Salala, no one is mourning the loss of lives of these 15 men because we do not cry at the atrocities committed by our so-called ‘strategic assets’, who not only claim these deaths with impunity, but justify it as an act of revenge.

    http://tribune.com.pk/story/317614/more-equal-than-others-in-death/

  2. muhammad arshad
    It’s only a crime when our soldiers are killed by non-muslims.our ghairatmand media doesn’t react,the anchors don’t scream,there are no interviews with the families of the shaheeds if their killers are the muslim taliban.No hue and cry,no shouts of violation of our sovereignty when the violators are muslims.

    Abbas
    By now it is quite clear that the Establishment understands which strings to pull, passions to stroke and the media looking for viewer attention plays second fiddle in support of the Establishment. It seeks every possible opportunity to create the darkest image of the civilian democracy and the media knows the game to play. As for the activism that the Judiciary has taken up in favor of the Establishment, history will pass final judgement of how thru the history of Pakistan the Judiciary has been coopted to serve as tools of the Establishment and this one may be the most egregious failure in helping bring down civilian democracy and replacing it with controlled politicians of the Imraan Khan/ Musharraf variety that can work in tandem with the Establishment.

    http://tribune.com.pk/story/317614/more-equal-than-others-in-death/

  3. Will the ISI-backed Citizens for Democracy (Beena Sarwar, Nasim Zehra, Naveen Naqvi, Sana Saleem) condemn the vile Religio-Jihadi violence by Taliban? Will the ISI-backed Jinnah Institute (Sherry Rehman, Ejaz Haider, Hamid Mir, Najam Sethi) condemn this act of barbarity by ISI’s strategic assets?

    The pro-army liberal chatterati is worse than the much more transparent Taliban.

  4. The banned Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan claimed on Thursday to have killed 15 Frontier Constabulary personnel, who were kidnapped from Mullazai Fort in Tank on Dec 23, to avenge the killing of their colleagues in Landikotal.
    According to pamphlets distributed by the Taliban to the media, it was stated that on Jan 01, the security forces of Pakistan killed TTP fighters and one woman. They also arrested some women and five infants in Kramana area of Landikotal tehsil in Khyber Agency during a military operation.
    Taliban questioned the rationale of government officials who declared Rashid Hussain, 29 years old son of KP Information Minister Mian Iftikhar as a kid. How could they (govt officials) declare five infants arrested by the security forces as militants, they questioned.
    Agencies add: Sending the ‘New Year gift’ to the government of Pakistan, TTP killed 15 kidnapped FC personnel to avenge the killing of their colleagues, the pamphlet said.
    The pamphlet also said it was the beginning, and the government should wait for more turbulent news, adding that video of the FC personnel’s killing would be released in coming days to teach a lesson to “infidels and their friends.” Later on, during telephonic calls from undisclosed location to various reporters, TTP spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan claimed to have killed all the 15 FC personnel, saying their bodies were dumped near Shawa area of North Waziristan Agency.
    “The FC personnel were killed in revenge for an operation by security forces in Khyber Agency,” the spokesman said.
    Sources said Qari Kamran, a top TTP commander, was reportedly killed along with 12 other militants, while some women and children were also taken into custody by the security forces during the operation in Landikotal. Local officials confirmed that 15 bodies, with gunshot wounds and telltale signs of torture, had been found in the Thal area. “We have received dead bodies of 15 kidnapped FC men”, senior local FC commander Ali Sher Mehsud told AFP. All the corpses, which arrived in a military hospital in Thal, had bullet wounds, he added. A local intelligence official also confirmed the killings.
    In a written statement, the TTP said: “It was against the Pashtun tradition and culture that the women and children had been taken by security forces into custody during operation.”
    On Dec 22, armed with sophisticated weapons, the TTP fighters overran Mullazai Fort. They killed one securityman and kidnapped 15 others.
    , besides setting the fort on fire.
    Law enforcement agencies launched repeated raids to recover the missing security personnel but failed to rescue them.
    The killing of FC personnel also belies the media reports that Taliban have declared to stop war against the Pakistani forces on the directives of Mullah Omar who asked them and other militant groups to stop toppling their own governments rather they should enhance support to the Afghan Taliban to accelerate war against the US-led Nato forces.

    http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/06-Jan-2012/taliban-slay-15-fc-soldiers

  5. “We have killed these personnel,” Ehsanullah Ehsan, spokesman for the group, told local media in Miranshah. The killing came at a time when peace deal with Pakistani Taliban groups was seemingly becoming talk of the town after the political and military leadership angrily reacted to November 26 NATO attack on Salala border post in Mohmand Agency.

    The FC personnel were kidnapped on December 23 from Mulazai Fort in Tank district in the militants attack.

    It was the first such lethal attack by Mehsud Taliban after they were driven out of their strongholds in South Waziristan in military operation. “The killing of security personnel is not only an anti-state act, but also repugnant to the cultural norms and values of society,” Kausar said in a statement. “It needs to be condemned by every patriotic citizen,” he said.

    Official sources said that the bodies were found in Shawa tehsil near Thal area of Hangu district.

    They were brought to a military hospital in Thal where doctors said the personnel appeared to have been shot dead on Thursday morning and they had bullet wounds. Most of the deceased FC personnel belonged to Khyber and others to Mohmand tribal region, according to FC sources wishing not to be named.

    It is the single biggest loss of soldiers since 26 army soldiers, including two officers, were killed in the NATO attack on November 26.

    http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012%5C01%5C06%5Cstory_6-1-2012_pg1_4

  6. Both are different cases! You can’t co relate them Mr Author. Voices were raised high during NATO attack because we were allies and you can’t attack and kill your allies but in case of Taliban, they are our enemies and they can attack and kill us in battle and so can we!

  7. This means army want to malign the US and the Salala was just an excuse. It seems like the Salala was a very good opportunity for them. We can also derive the Salala might be planned by taliban ( secret ones )

  8. @Farhan: Good point. Then why is Pakistan army using its domestic and international influence to provide legitimacy to a terrorist enemy, the Taliban?

  9. the peramilitry fc personals killed on a daily basis,no one
    in the whole electronic media show them on a tv…they consider their life very cheap…..

  10. 10 more soldiers slain by Taliban.

    January 10, 2012

    Share | |
    Bodies of 10 missing soldiers recovered in Orakzai

    * Soldiers went missing following an attack on their post
    * TTP spokesman confirms killing troops, exchanging bodies

    PESHAWAR: Authorities have recovered the bodies of 10 soldiers in an exchange of bodies with Taliban militants following a clash two weeks ago in the Orakzai tribal district.
    The missing soldiers’ bullet-riddled bodies were discovered after they went missing following an attack on their post, local administration and military sources said.
    A source requesting anonymity told Daily Times that the 11 missing FC soldiers were still unaccounted for. “The recovered bodies have been airlifted to Peshawar,” another military source said.
    The recovery of bodies comes four days after the Taliban brutally murdered 15 kidnapped FC soldiers in North Waziristan. The soldiers were kidnapped from their checkpoint in Tank district on December 24.
    Observers say the loss of soldiers in such a big number would demoralise other security personnel.
    Meanwhile, AFP news wire reported that the dead soldiers were recovered in an exchange of bodies with the Taliban.
    A security official told the wire that the 10 soldiers had been beheaded. “They (Taliban) handed over the beheaded bodies of 10 officials while we handed over four bodies of militants to them,” the official said. Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan, in a phone call to a foreign radio channel, said his men were behind the December 21, 2011 attack.
    “We take responsibility for killing the 10 soldiers whose bodies have been recovered from Orakzai,” Ehsanullah told Reuters from an undisclosed location. “This is an exchange of bodies with them, as they killed 10 of our people and we have responded with killing 10 of their men,” he said. staff report/agencies

    http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012%5C01%5C10%5Cstory_10-1-2012_pg7_6

  11. Terror attack in Jamrud bazaar leaves 30 dead

    Ibrahim Shinwari

    10 Jan 2011

    Pakistani security personnel examine the site of a bomb blast in Jamrud on January 10, 2011. – Photo by AFP

    LANDI KOTAL: A powerful bomb planted in a pick-up exploded at a petrol station in Jamrud bazaar in Khyber Agency, killing over 30 people, four of them Khasadar personnel, and injuring 78 others on Tuesday.

    The bomb was triggered by remote control.

    (The AFP news agency, quoting senior administration official Shakeel Khan Umarzai, put the death toll at 35 and the number of injured at 69, 11 of them critically).

    Officials said the pick-up was removed by the Khasadar personnel from near a vegetable market and parked at the fuel station, adjacent to a taxi stand.

    About an hour later, the pick-up exploded.

    “The bomb was possibly detonated with a remote control device which left 24 people dead on the spot,” a security official said.

    The blast destroyed several kiosks, six vehicles and the filling station.

    Khyber Agency administrator Mutahir Zeb said it appeared that Zakhakhel tribe which had formed a Lashkar against Taliban militants in the area was the target. He said the bombing was similar to earlier attacks carried out by Taliban.

    Mr Zeb said the incident could be a reaction to a mili-tary operation under way in Khyber Agency, particularly in Bara. But, he said the government was determined to combat terrorists and defeat them.

    http://www.dawn.com/2012/01/11/terror-attack-in-jamrud-bazaar-leaves-30-dead.html

    ———-

    Previously in August 2011:

    August 21, 2011

    Share | |
    Taliban claim Jamrud attack as toll reaches 56

    Staff Report

    JAMRUD: Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) has claimed responsibility of Jamrud suicide attack as death toll reaches 56 on Saturday.
    More action will be taken against the members of Koki Khel tribe if they continue to resist to the TTP in Tirrah Valley, a senior journalist quoted TTP’s Tariq group spokesman, Talha, as saying.
    The TTP spokesman had called a reporter on Saturday morning and accepted the responsibility of the suicide attack. He alleged that the Koki Khel tribe had contrived against their group in Mehraban village of Tirrah Valley that was why their members were targetted on Ghundi Road. “A lashker of Koki Khel tribe has killed our fighters in Tirrah Valley and has demolished the houses of our members,” the TTP spokesman said.
    A teenage suicide bomber had jumped into the mosque through a window and blew himself up, killing 56 people and injuring another 116 on Friday, a senior Khasadar Force official said. The tribal elders regretted the announcement of Rs 50,000 for each killed and Rs 25,000 for each wounded, as that was equal to nothing.

    http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2011%5C08%5C21%5Cstory_21-8-2011_pg1_4

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